Gay marriage

Final project on how language is used when talking about gay marriage.


  • Glyn Hughes, director of Common Ground, University of Richmond’s diversity and inclusion initiative.
  • Thad Williamson, Professor of Leadership Studies at the U of R.
  • Ladelle McWhorter, Professor of Philosophy at the U of R.

Unethical politicking


According to Rick Perry, scientists are increasingly questioning global warming as a man-made phenomenon. Literally, Perry said that “we’re seeing it almost weekly or even daily, scientists who are coming forward and questioning the original idea that man-made global warming is what is causing the climate to change.” In his view, too much money has been spent in addressing this issue, since it is not proved that human beings cause global warming. “The science is not settled on this. The idea that we would put Americans’ economy at jeopardy based on scientific theory that’s not settled yet to me is just nonsense,” Perry said.

Denying our responsibility in global warming may be seen as unethical by many people, although we are not considering this issue here. Rick Perry is not acting in an unethical way merely because he believes that human beings are not related to global warming; he is acting unethically mainly because he is lying by saying that scientist are more and more “questioning the original idea that man-made global warming is what is causing the climate to change.”

The 2009 report on climate change made by the U.S. Global Change Research Program, which is sponsored by thirteen federal agencies, specifically says that “global warming is unequivocal and primarily human-induced.” The report made by the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the leading international body for the assessment of climate change, also says that “most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.”

The denial of man-made global warming is not only anecdotal, but it also interferes in science in a direct way. In fact, Texas has been recently accused of censoring global warming facts in a scientific research. Rick Perry may think that global warming has nothing to do with human actions, but when this point of view actually affects scientific development, ethics-related issues arise. This proves how subtle is the line between a respectable opinion and unethical politicking.

Unfair reporting



The Republican debate televised on CNBC on Wednesday was, according to some political analysts, the end of Rick Perry as a presidential candidate. The Governor of Texas was unable to come up with the name of the third agency he wants to get rid of. The hesitancy in his voice and his obvious feeling of nervousness greatly affected the Governor’s image. Few minutes later, however, Perry remembered that the third agency was the Energy Department.

The embarrassing moment was reported by local, national, and even international media. But some of them, like the CNN, did not mentioned that Perry ended up saying the name of the third agency. Although it was certainly a great mistake, the media should have let their audience know that, eventually, Rick Perry remembered it. Otherwise, they are reporting unfairly, since some important information is missing. In fact, not knowing something is much more serious than not remembering it at a particular moment. Avoiding to mention it may be considered paltering.

As professors Schauer and Zeckhauser point out, paltering is an intentional act in which “the speaker intends for the listener to have a misimpression.” Then, paltering includes the practice of fudging, twisting, shading, bending, stretching, slanting, exaggerating, distorting, whitewashing, and selective reporting. Not mentioning that Perry remembered the name of the third agency entails fudging and selective reporting, but is there a deliberate action in this case? If so, it should be considered paltering and, therefore, unethical and unfair reporting.